Back Enhanced Fujita (EF) Tornado Scale

Enhanced Fujita (EF) Tornado Scale (effective February 1, 2007)

The Fujita Scale is used to rate the intensity of a tornado by examining the damage caused after the tornado has passed over man-made structures and vegetation.

Scale Estimated Wind Speed
mph kph
EF0 65-85 105-107
EF1 86-110 138-178
EF2 111-135 179-218
EF3 136-165 219-266
EF4 166-200 267-322
EF5 >200 >322

EF Scale Damage Indicators

The EF scale uses three-second gusts estimated at the point of damage based on a judgment of 8 levels of damage to the 28 indicators listed below. These estimates vary with height and exposure.

Number Damage Indicator Abbreviation
1 Small barns, farm outbuildings SBO
2 One- or two-family residences FR12
3 Single-wide mobile home MHSW
4 Double-wide mobile home MHDW
5 Aptartment, condo, townhouse (3 stories or less) ACT
6 Motel M
7 Masonry apartment or motel MAM
8 Small retail building (fast food) SRB
9 Small professional building (doctor's office, branch bank) SPB
10 Strip mall SM
11 Large shopping mall LSM
12 Large, isolated ("big box") retail building LIRB
13 Automobile showroom ASR
14 Automotive service building ASB
15 School (1-story elementary; interior or exterior halls) ES
16 School (junior or senior high school) JHSH
17 Low-rise (1-4 story) building LRB
18 Mid-rise (5-20 story) building MRB
19 High-rise (over 20 stories) building HRB
20 Institutional building (hospital, government, or university) IB
21 Metal building system MBS
22 Service station canopy SSC
23 Warehouse (tilt-up walls or heavy timber) WHB
24 Transmission line tower TLT
25 Free-standing tower FST
26 Free standing pole (light, flag) FSP
27 Tree (hardwood) TH
28 Tree (softwood) TS